SF Anime Production Translation Dictionary

I want to make a running thread of Japanese to English translations and definitions of anime production terms:

I’ll start this off with some of the words Will and I compiled. Please add to this thread, I’ll periodically come through and add to this topic description.

Useful Vocabulary

E-konte (絵ーコンテ): Using the given scenario, one illustrates cuts, screen composition, and character actions along with voice lines and duration. Serves as blueprint of animation. Is often drawn by either the series director, episode director, or dedicated Storyboard staff.

Layout/1st Key Animation:
Reiouto (レイアウト)/Dai-Ichi Genga (第一原画): Step in which the Key Animator, called “Genga-man” draws the background and roughs for a cut. This includes drawing all keyframes for all of the cels, as well as instructions for any camera/slide work in a cut. Depending on the production it is also common for roughs for 3d animation to be drawn at this point. The xsheet (time sheet) is also filled out at this point, designating the timing and any other necessary instructions for the composite staff.

Key Animation:
Genga (原画): Illustrations of key movement points (beginning, critical junctures, end). Genga are required for every time a vector of movement changes, or the space between drawings is too big for an in betweener. Those in charge of this section are called “Genga-man.” In modern animation this is used to refer to the layout artist in the credits, and the cleaned up 2nd keys in house. Because of it’s nebulous usage it is preferable to use either Layout/1st Key to refer to roughs, and 2nd Key to refer to pre inbetweener cleanup.

2nd Key Animation:
Dainigenga (第二原画):The cleaned up retrace/brushup of the Animation Director’s corrections. Since ADs generally can not redraw/correct all of the keys Key Animators must update any of their old drawings that require fixes to be consistent with the AD’s corrections.

Douga (動画): Clean up Key Animation. Keys are all retraced and in betweens are drawn according to the xsheets and spacing charts. People in this section are called "Douga-man”.

Shiage (仕上げ): Process of coloring in characters and objects conveyed as cels. Now, colors can be digitally added on with a computer, but during the Cel days, colors were painted on transparent acetate sheets.

Background Painting
Haikei/Bijutsu (背景/美術): Background painting, based on the layouts given to the painter.

Satsuei (撮影): Generally done in After Effects, staff places digital cels on top of backgrounds, add effects, pans etc and exports each cut as movie data. Before digitalization, the process consisted of placing cels on top of illustrated backgrounds and actually taking pictures with a camera.

Episode Director Check
Enshutsu Check (演出チェック ): Check done by the Episode Director. Fixes are done to both backgrounds and composition, as well as character expressions and timing. Character fixes will always need to be brushed up onto model by Animation Direction staff.

Animation Director Check
Sakkan Check(作監チェック): Check by Animation Director. Redraws Key Frames to maintain coherence in drawing style among all cuts. This is separated into two phases: Layout Sakkan and Genga Sakkan, where larger corrections are done to the layout, and then final corrections again done to the keyframer’s retrace before being sent to in betweening staff.

Color Check
Cel Kensa ( セル検査): There is something called a “Color Model“ that is a record of how to color in the characters that is made per scene by the color setting staff. Color Direction instructs which color model to use per cut. Sometimes, the colors of small objects that only make an appearance for one episode are decided by this section. The cuts that have their color models decided are then sent to a ”Finish“ section where they are actually colored in. The inspection section then checks to see if
the correct colors were used, and if any mistakes are made.

Taimushiito (タイムシート): Known as an X(short for exposure) Sheet in the west, this sheet has spaces where the timing of the drawings is filled in to show when to show what drawing for how many frames. The x-sheet is also used to give instructions for slides, pans, multi-plane camera movement, and any post processing effects. Sheets in use are 24 frames per second.

Image Board
Imeeji Boodo (イメージボード)

Episode Director
Enshutsu (演出)

Sound Effect/Voice over
Afureko (アフレコ)

Series Director

Gamen/E (画面/絵)

Serifu/Oto (セリフ/音)

Naiyou (内容)

Jikan (時間)

Total Time
Goukei Jikan (会計時間)

Econte Notations:

Fix: A cut with no camera motion. Its usually only written when the lack of camera motion needs to be specified. Heres one example where the camera is fixed for one part of the cut (2 seconds) and then pans for 4.5 seconds. Here is another example where the camera is fixed for the whole cut. Its specified here so that the layout artist doesnt add unwanted camera work.

T.U./T.B. : Track Up/Track Back. Camera motion meaning to either zooming or dollying since they are both similar in 2d space Here it is in action. The 100 to 90 is the frame size. It isnt always specified, but here the shot goes from showing 100% of the frame (the dark line on this layout paper), to 90% of it.

D.T.U./D.T.B: Digital Track Up/Digital Track Back. Zooming in or out of a single element within a cut. Here is an example, where the background elements are zoomed in in size, while the foreground elements are either CG, or remain the same size.

Fairing (フェアリング): Slow in or slow out of camera motion. In this example the fairing is most obvious on the foreground elements scrolling past. The cut starts out moving really fast, and then slows down with the drag.

Q.T.B. Quick Track Back. a sudden Track back at the start of a cut, usually done in less than 9 frames with what’s known as fairing at the end to gradually slow down the camera motion towards the end of the cut.

Pan(Pan up/Pan down): Camera panning, either by rotation or dolly motion since both are shot the same in 2d. If you draw a layout in curvilinear perspective, A pan is camera rotation. If you draw it in a telephoto, or with what`s known as non perspective, a pan has the effect of dolly movement.

Tsuke Pan (つけPan/Follow Pan) : A tsuke, or ‘stick’ pan is used in conte to denote that the camera follows the action. In this case the general direction of the movement is also specified.

Follow: Camera follows the action in one direction at a constant rate. This is different from a tsuke pan in that the direction and speed of motion is singular, with the exception of some cases of slow in/slow out. Direction and speed in mm/frame should be indicated by the layout artist…

Daibiki (台引き): Sliding of the background in a cut. Direction and speed in mm/frame should be indicated by the layout artist. This is essentially the same as a follow, but refers to the physical sliding of the background in one direction or another to show movement.

CG Follow/ Pers Pull (パース引き): Perspective pull. Sliding of background elements that are transformed in composite to create perspective. Direction and speed in mm/frame should be indicated. In this example of a CG follow, the stars are 3d elements moved in perspective to show the direction of motion, while the character is essentially static in the foreground.

F.O/F.I. :Fade out/fade in. This refers to a change in the transparency of individual elements within a cut, or as a transition at the start or end of a cut. As a scene transition this refers to a fade to or fade from black.

W.O./W.I.: White out. The same thing as a fade out or in, but with white instead.

OL: Overlap. This is referring to a crossfade transition between cuts. Time in overlap should be specified in seconds plus frames by the layout artist if you see this notation.

Pon Yori (ポン寄り): A closer shot following a farther away one of the same thing. In film terms in English this is known as a cut in. In this example, the closeup of the face is a pon yori of the waist up shot.

Gamen Dou/ Gabure (画面動/画ブレ): Camera shake. DYNAMIC
If it is only partial the time the shake is applied should be specified by the layout artist on the xsheet.

D.F.: Diffusion. A light filter that gives a hazy blur effect to the lighting. Often used in memory or dream sequences, or for hot looking cuts like this one here.

波ガラス(Wave Glass): A wave distortion filter often used to show either water effects or heat.
That`s the wavy effect in this same cut.

Boke (ボケ): Lens blur, literally bokeh. It can be applied on any layered element within a cut
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bokeh In this case the the grass and birds in the foreground, as well as the ocean in the background have boke applied.

Pin Okuri (ピン送り): Change of focal depth or length. Going from blurry to in focus and vice versa

SL (slide): x or y translation of any cut element other than the background. In this case, the mechs rocket boosting in the background are sliding.

Micchaku Multi/Micchaku Bik/Micchaku Slide(密着マルチ/密着引き/密着SL): Multiplane motion. The elements of a cut are slid at motion relative to their distance from the camera to simulate depth. In this example you can see that the moon slides in the opposite direction of the camera motion. The closer to the camera elements are, the bigger the range of the slide will be.

Cel/Background and Layering Terms:

Jikkei (実景): Real background. Denotes that the background in a cut isn’t an imaginary/gag background. It wasn’t notated in this episode, and isn’t written when it is obvious, so we added it like this as an example.

Ryuuhai (流背): Flowing backgrounds used on cuts with constant motion. Used to be made by painting multiple backgrounds made of colorful speedlines and changing them out sequentially, but is now made by animating in composite. Direction and speed in mm/frame should be indicated.

Book: A background layer with transparency so it can be placed on top of other elements, or moved independently to simulate depth. In this shot the mountaintop in the foreground is a book, and moves slightly to simulate depth as the camera tracks back.

Cut In (カットイン): Another cel and/or background set appearing within a cut. Often used for character communications. The outline of the superimposed cut/cuts can be any shape. In this case, the example wasn`t originally notated, so we added it to show what it looks like.

3DCG: 3d elements with motion within a cut. In this example the highway is CG (use DTU example)

3D Book/2d CG: 2dcg sounds like an oxymoron at first, but it refers to 3d elements added as still frames in a cut… It is treated the same as a still cel and can be slid/rotated or layered with cels. In this example cut, the small ships at the start of the pan are 2dcg.

Bg Only: Denotes a cut that is made of only background elements. In this example, it wasn`t labeled, so we added it for illustrative purposes.

Zen Seru/Zen Sakuga 全セル/全作画: Denotes either a cut(全作画), or a moment within a cut where the cel elements take up the entire screen. This means that zen sakuga cuts don`t need background art.

BG Okikae/BG Gae (BG置き換え): Background replacement. When one background is replaced with another in the same cut. Often used for gag shots, or after a zen cel in action scenes. In this case the image background is a bg okikae with a wipe transition done with a mask.

Book Okikae/Book Gae (Book置き換え):. The same thing but done with a book. Often used for explosions or environmental destruction. In this example the roof of the trailer is replaced by doing a book okikae multiple times to show the top of it getting blown off, while flying debris is shown with cel elements underneath the book.

ハイコン: Short for high contrast. The cel is colored with higher contrast colors and or drawn with different lighting to bump up the contrast momentarily, or throughout a cut. Hi con is often used for a couple frames within explosions, but in this cut it is used for the entire length of the cut, along with hand drawn shadow movements to show the pulsating light source

中OL: internal overlap. A crossfade transition within a single cel. Common usage is for a gradual change in cel color or light source. In this example the character`s face is cross faded between 2 key drawings with no inbetweens, and then in betweened when it moves again at the end of the cut.

In/Out: This is used when a character or cel comes into frame or exits the frame. In this example the shot starts with only the background visible, and the mecha comes into frame from the upper right.

A.C. (Action Cut): written between any two cuts that are connected in the middle of a single continuous action. In this case the 2 cuts are joined together by the mech`s motion.

Gyaku Poji (逆ポジ): Used when the conte drawing is facing the opposite direction that is intended. Layout should be drawn horizontally flipped from the conte drawing. In the example you can see that the character is facing the opposite direction in the final composite.

Dou poji (同ポジ): Reuse of camera position. (the background) In this case you can see the same closeup being reused with new animation, after cutting a few different shots in between it.

Ken/Kenyou 兼(兼用): reuse of either a cut, or elements within a cut. If a background is reused, it is known as a doupoji. If cels or other parts of a cut are used, it is known as 素材兼用sozai kenyou.

BANK(バンク): reuse of a cut from a previous episode. In this case this shot is reused from episode one, but with changes made to it so that it fits with the episode.

上手(kamite)/下手(shimote): The right(kami) or left(shimo) side of the screen.

俯瞰 (fukan): Downward angle. The camera is pointing towards the ground.

あおり(aori): Upward angle. The camera is pointed towards the sky/ceiling.

広角 (koukaku): Wide angle or fisheye lens

望遠: Long, or telescopic lens.

ストロボ (Strobo): Short for stroboscope. A technique often used for slow motion sequences where each frame is crossfaded with the next.

(OFF): Written next to dialog of a character that is offscreen.

モノ/M(Mono): Short for monologue. Written next to dialog that is within a character’s head, meaning that mouth flaps for the dialog aren’t needed.


This is really useful, thanks!

Super useful. I was doing one by myself from the youtube videos… Thanks

You have the skill and the dedication Nesshen!:slightly_smiling_face:

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I noticed on Miyazaki’s storyboards, when the cut continues to the following page he notes (in the shot column) in hiragana つづく(tsuzuku) with an arrow and in the following page he notes again the number of the shot + つづき (Tsuzuki).
To be continued and continued.

So if proper English term for ポン寄り is cut-in, what’s English term for カットイン? Because they’re different things.

I’d said “insert shot”? isn’it?

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This is immensely helpful, Thank you for putting it all into one place!

What is the difference between the role of the director and series director